4.5 Defects of the diction
These errors can be consequences of natural speech disorders (lisp, rhotacism etc.), of a weak functioning of the articulatory apparatus, and of words distortion while singing. Everyone knows acting exercises aimed to develop diction; it is helpful to resort to them in singing lessons. Patters help to intensify the functioning of lips and tongue in singing, but people speaking them in a good way can be helpless in singing, since the formation of vowels and consonants in speech and singing is different. So, to eliminate the defects of diction more appropriate are vocal exercises that smoothen the differences in the pronunciation of vowels and consonants. Constant attention to a clear pronunciation of consonants can also be of assistance.